Обратите внимание: перевод этих статей ведется постепенно. Не удивляйтесь, если встретите куски фраз или целые фразы на американском. Если вернетесь сюда через несколько дней, их станет меньше. - Mr.Twr.

Источник: журнал KITPLANES , Март 1997
Строим RotorWay 162F
автор: Jeff Dunham Перевод: Mr.TwistAir

Часть 1 из 8: Как я влез в эту историю

It was the spring of 1986, just a few months before I graduated from Baylor University in Waco, Texas...

Было это весной 1986-го, всего за несколько месяцев до того, как я закончил университет Бейлор в Вако, штат Техас...
. Тогда-то я и увидел в журнале Popular Mechanics коротенькое объявление и попался на крючок. Идея казалась заманчивой и, простив университету день занятий, я взял билет на ранний рейс Остин - Феникс чтобы через пару часов уже сидеть в маленьком двухместном вертолете, стоящем на площадке фирмы RotorWay. На передней  панели прямо перед глазами у меня большими буквами было выведено: "Экспериментальный".

Ознакомительный Полет
   Некто по имени "Stretch" сел в кабину и разразился хорошо поставленным спичем, восхваляющим самодельный летающий предмет, порожденние его фирмы, а я сидел и вспоминал, не осталось ли у меня в комнате дома чего-нибудь такого, за что маме с папой придется краснеть разбирая мои вещи после того, как я погибну в катастрофе вертолета в штате Аризона. До этого на моем счету были всего несколько 10-минутных перелетов на "Джет Рейнджере" в Нью-Йорке и короткий роман с радиоуправляемыми вертушками, но от этого ничуть не легче. Экскурсия по фирме была очень интересной, народ приятный во всех отношениях, но, черт побери, стоило посмотреть на эту табличку перед носом: "Экспериментальный. Это воздушное судно любительской постройки и оно не соответствует федеральным требованиям безопасности, предъявляемым к серийным воздушным судам." М-м-м...Да я просто законченый идиот. Может быть, выбраться из этой штуки, пока паренек не завел ее? Тут ведь сгореть можно еще до того, как успеешь отстегнуть ремни.
 

1rw1.gif (89548 bytes)  Преимущество вертолета в том, что совершить посадку можно где угодно. Где тебе угодно.

   А Stretch тем временем кончил вещать и запустил двигатель. Гхмм, подумал я про себя, работает. И работает подозрительно мягко.   Двигатель прогрелся, и мы зависли . Похоже, это круто. Тогда он дал мне подержаться за ручку и попробовать висеть самому. Очень круто. Предполагаю, что Stretch не готов умирать молодым, так что может быть все обойдется. Но вот он отдал ручку от себя, вертолет опустил нос, и земля понеслась нам под брюхо. Я вспомнил: это как в детстве, когда первый раз прыгаешь в воду с высоты. Когда ты взлетаешь на двухместном самолете, он на разбеге поднимает нос и землю не видно. Здесь было как раз наоборот. Идти в набор высоты с опущенным вниз носом на скорости 130 км/час, имея при этом вокруг божественный панорамный вид аризонской пустыни - да, да, именно таким должен быть настоящий Полет, об этом я и мечтал всю жизнь. Да, наверное, и каждый мечтает. Сто лет проживу - не забуду чувства, которые я испытал в тот первый день.  "Перед нами - линия электропередач" - произнес Stretch . Видимо, для того, чтобы доказать, что ему не требуются очки.

1rw2.gif (44890 bytes)  Автор - Jeff Dunham (справа),  и его приятель Jason Harding отдыхают в укромном местечке графства Сан-Диего, куда не сядешь на самолете. А на вертолете  Exec 90  - можно.

Быстрым шагом
    Я вернулся домой. Ощущения не ушли. Я посмотрел (много раз) демонстрационную видеокассету, изучил материалы по сборке и - всего несколько дней - спорил сам с собой на тему "разве можно столько денег тратить на хобби". Правда, когда решение уже было принято, я раза три проехал мимо своего банка, прежде чем зашел в него и перевел деньги на RotorWay. Восемь месяцев спустя я выполнил первую авторотацию на вертолете, который  собрал сам. Весь вертолет - своими руками. Круто, а?

Десять лет спустя
   Stretch теперь - мой добрый друг, фирма RotorWay, пережив пару потрясений и смену владельца, продолжает идти вперед. Конструкторская мысль B.J. Schramm'а  превратила вертолет Javelin сначала в Scorpion и Scorpion II, затем появились Exec и Exec 90, и, наконец, Exec 162F. Доработки и изменения сделали 162F самым продвинутым поршневым вертолетом в мире. 2600 кубиков его  двигателя выдают 150 л.с. при четырех цилиндрах и четырех тактах, жидкостном охлаждении, дублированном зажигании и электронном впрыске. Система FADEC (Fully Automated Digital Electronic Control) контролирует все параметры двигателя и управляет ими, также имея независимый резервный электронный блок.  With a fully articulated elastomeric rotor hub, a wider and more spacious cabin than the Exec or the Exec 90, a lighter and more effective cooling system, the cabin comfort package (heating and cooling), removable doors, dual controls, a 95-mph cruising speed and 180-mile range, this helicopter is no puttering homebuilt.
 

1rw5.gif (35614 bytes)  Маленькие детали расфасованы на картонках в вакуумной упаковке и подписаны, чтобы было легче разобраться.

Давай сделаем это еще раз...
   Вот уже более десяти лет я - преданный заказчик фирмы RotorWay и поклонник ее продукции, на двух образцах которой я регулярно летаю, т.к. вскоре после появления модели Ехес 90 я приобрел и ее. Благодаря этим двум вертолетам, я провел много приятных часов в воздухе и в мастерской. Теперь появился  162F и, видимо, пришло время поделиться тем опытом, который накопился за это время. Этой статьей мы начинаем серию публикаций, посвященных сборке вертолетов RotorWay и полетам на них. I'll take you through RotorWay's entire program, all the way from ordering the promo package, to building the machine, to flight school at RotorWay, to flying the ship once we get her rigged and ready to go. Also along the way, we'll include input from a second builder, Mike Sherick, who has just finished construction of his own 162F. He'll give us first impressions of RotorWay and his experiences, and I'll be able to view things from a veteran's point of view. You'll see pictures of both our ships throughout construction, and at the conclusion of these five or so articles, if all goes well, we'll include air-to-air shots of and from both helicopters.

The Фирма
   Прежде, чем браться за инструменты, давайте все же окинем беглым взором компанию RotorWay. Вначале это была  RotorWay Aircraft, которую создал  B.J. Schramm, конструктор, изобретатель и подлинный энтузиаст вертикального взлета. Киты вертолетов он начал продавать еще в конце 60-х и возглавлял медленную, но успешную эволюцию, приведшую много претерпевший Ехес к его четвертому поколению. Впервые кит под названием "Экзек" был предложен заказчикам в 1983 году и стал для многих счастливчиков первой ступенькой в авиацию. В конце 80-х, столкнувшись с неразрешимыми финансовыми трудностями, Schramm был вынужден оставить бизнес, что вызвало легкую панику среди тех заказчиков, чьи вертолеты находились в процессе сборки. Несколько горячих недель неопределенности закончились тем, что долги RotorWay Aircraft  выкупил у банка-кредитора англичанин  John Netherwood.
   Наш новый герой перебрался вместе с семьей через Большую Лужу, чтобы сформировать нынешний RotorWay International. Собрав под новой крышей большинство прежних сотрудников, Джон и его команда перетрясли конструкцию вертолета Exec. Since RotorWay employees could build and fabricate most of the components and parts in house, they could easily change the existing product. They improved the engine with beef-ups and tweaks here and there, including a dual electronic ignition rather than the single distributor. Among other minor changes, they built a larger and taller main shaft for the helicopter; a stronger and better looking landing gear; and a cleaner, faster, and more gorgeous body.
 

 в горы (28682 bytes)  Автор взбирается в горы на своем втором вертолете (Ехес 90). А следующий, Ехес 162F, должен летать еще лучше.

They debuted the new machine at Oshkosh 1990, dubbing it the Exec 90. Then at Oshkosh '94, RotorWay International introduced the current 162F with even more improvements, which we'll talk about in detail throughout these articles. For the past five years, despite a sagging world economy, RWI has consistently produced an average of two kits per week, and the company continues to update and improve its product through extensive design and flight testing. Before most folks plunk down thousands of dollars for a kit, a smart move is to get a feel for the chosen company. Do you get more for your money than just a pile of parts that are supposed to fly when assembled? Will the company answer questions right away, and are replacement parts readily available? Do I have to be an aircraft engineer to interpret the instructions and build this thing? From recent personal experience, I can tell you that regarding RWI, the answers to each of these questions are confidence-building.
   From RotorWay you get much more than parts. These kits are made to fly, and RotorWay wants you to get into the sky in the easiest and safest manner possible. Thanks to new, highly detailed building instructions, rarely should builders have questions. However, Customer Service guys at RotorWay are near the phone ready to help. Stretch is now RotorWay's president, as well as being the in-house FAA examiner. So besides making corporate business decisions, he continues to maintain hands-on experience working in development, giving flight demos and class instruction, and he still answers the ever-important phone-in builder questions.
   Another guy who has been there for more than a decade is Tom Smith. I couldn't have built either of my machines without his and Stretch's phone help, and to this day I'm still amazed at their knowledge and patience answering highly technical and intuitive engineering and aviation questionsЙas well as some pretty idiotic queries. From my experience, they usually take calls immediately, or return them within a few minutes during regular business hours. And if you screw something up, new parts are usually out the door within a day or two. As for building instructions and the way the kit is organized, this iin my opinion is where RotorWay shines brighter than just about any kit manufacturer in the world.
 

1rw3.gif (35331 bytes)  Так же, как и предыдущие модели, кит 162F включает в себя все, что нужно, чтобы построить летающий вертолет. Кроме масла, бензина и краски. Ну, и рук, конечно.

The 162F Kit
One of the most impressive aspects about RWI as a company is its attention to detail. When building the Exec 90, I lost count of how many people walked into the hangar and were amazed with the packaging of the kit. Most important: It's all there. Builders of most fixed-wing kits know that they must plan on spending double or even triple the cost of the initial purchase to get the craft to fly--due mostly to the extra cost of the engine, propeller, avionics and instruments. Not so with RotorWay kits. You get everything from a fully built, ready-to-bolt-in, dynamometer-run and calibrated engine, down to the rubber trim for the skid pants. RWI even supplies items like Loc-Tite and Clecos with Cleco pliers, and all flight instruments including airspeed, altimeter, vertical speed and the compass. And, for a competitive price, RWI offers an optional avionics package that includes a radio, transponder, encoder, intercom and headsets. The only things missing to get your ship in the air are paint and a few hundred hours of building time. Speaking of options, there are very few. If you want to spray crops, land on water, or carry too much luggage, these are extra kits.
 

1rw4.gif (52260 bytes)  Двигатель RI 162F:  150л.с., 162 кубических дюйма, 4 цилиндра, 4 такта,жидкостное охлаждение, двойное электронное зажигание, электронный впрыск топлива и ситема  FADEC (Fully Automated Digital Electronic Control).

   But for the typical flying ship, there's really nothing left to decide. The Quick Kit version used to be an option, but no longer. Some pretty major stuff is now finished for you. For $60,850, you get all components and parts including a fully built tail boom, main blades finished and ready to paint and balance, a complete wiring harness ready to hook up, rotor hub ready to fly, all metal subassemblies final welded, horizontal and vertical stabs, and tailrotor blades ready for end caps and mounting, as well as a fully welded airframe right off the RotorWay jig. There is no longer any welding to be done by the builder. All fiberglass parts are already laid up with a nice gelcoat ready for final trimming and finishing. You do very little gooey work! RotorWay claims 300 hours total building time with the current 162F kit, but I question that. I built the Exec 90 (with no Quick Kit option) in 650 hours, and that was with prior experience. So I'll keep a log on this one and we'll also talk with Mike along the way to find out his actual hours.
   As you can see in a picture, the packaging of the kit is flawless. Literally every little part down to each nut and washer is organized. Each step of the kit has its own series of numbers that correspond to parts and its own set of instructions within the manual. For example, each part of the airframe has a painted part number that corresponds to the numbers on the large blueprint drawings of the frame assembly. To assemble these large parts, you must of course use small parts such as bolts and washers. So the airframe assembly includes three vacuum-packed cards with each of the airframe's nuts, bolts, washers and unique parts hermetically sealed on these cards. Within each part card under the transparent plastic, there is also a printed picture of every item, and everything has its own part number. It would be obvious if something was missing because there would be a picture but no part! Once you see one of these kits, its packaging, and its instructions, you'll have a very high standard to judge by. Very few kits--either fixed-wing or rotorcraft--match the Exec 162F package.

Paperwork
   The instructions are three highly detailed loose leaf notebooks along with full-size building prints, and they take you step by step through each assembly, making you concentrate only on the task at hand. The 162F is a perfect example of something being just the sum of its parts. If you look at this helicopter as a step-by-step procedure, anyone with a hint of mechanical ability can build one. Heck, when I started my first Exec, I got the engine and couldn't even point to the carburetor. Ask Tom and Stretch. I'm sure they used to dread my phone calls.

Devotion to Duty
   Despite all of these accolades, however, I must point out that this is an endeavor that requires great dedication. In fact, full focused obsession wouldn't hurt either. This is not a kit you can throw together in a few weekends and hope to be flying after the final turn of a wrench. Inherently, rotorcraft are for the guys who like to tweak, and the Exec 162F will be no different. There are a couple of areas in construction where one can fudge the tolerances a little, but for the most part, your opportunities to say "Close enough!" are very few. And if you're expecting to fly an easy 300 hours a year in this craft without much maintenance, forget about it. For safety's sake, thorough preflight and postflight checks are mandatory. The machine is only as good and as safe as its builder/pilot-in-command.
   Obviously a correctly and well-built by-the-book craft will perform and last longer than a slapped-together piece of junk where the word experimental is an understatement. Apathy combined with a "Hell, it was fine 2 hours ago!" attitude can be a killer. The safety record for this aircraft is excellent, and this machine has the potential to be nothing but pure fun. But just like any helicopter, if something comes out of adjustment and is ignored, or if a key item isn't maintained correctly, the results can be fatal. RotorWay's maintenance manuals are excellent, and when followed correctly, they are well within commercial standards in regard to replacing parts long before fatigue or failure. So keep in mind that this is a homebuilt helicopter, and you have to enjoy turning a wrench just as much as you do buzzing a farm house. The two go hand in hand.

Езжайте в Феникс, юноша!
   This brings up the last subject for this issue: Where does a guy learn how to do maintenance on the Exec 162F, much less fly the thing!? That gets to one of the best adventures in this whole endeavor! After you're about 90% finished with your kit and before you mount the blades or fire it up, you head out to Phoenix and the RotorWay flight and maintenance school for a week of boot camp. There you are treated to daily class instruction on how to set up, final rig and maintain these mechanical beasts. You also get 1.5 hours a day of flight instruction from one of RotorWay's CFIs. Obviously 7.5 hours of instruction is not enough flight time to learn to fly, but for about 98% of RotorWay students, it's enough for the all-important level of being a confident hoverer! I started the school at RotorWay with absolutely no experience in general aviation as pilot or a passenger. I took a ride in a Bell 47 at the State Fair of Texas when I was four, but other than that, I couldn't tell a Cessna from a Pitts or a Huey from a Bensen Gyrocopter.
   Was RotorWay ready for a guy like me? I did have one significant advantage over most people, although some may scoff at this: As I mentioned earlier, I had been flying radio controlled helicopters for a few years. The mechanical workings, flight characteristics and even controls were almost mirrored in a smaller scale from a full-size helicopter, so heli knowledge, theory, and a little piloting skill were burned into my brain. In fact, I might have known a little too much. From many a crunched model I knew what kind of disaster could instantly happen from one loose bolt or a miscalculated control input. And I still wanted to fly in one myself? Mom and Dad probably kick themselves for taking me to the fair that day. At the first week of school I was fairly nervous. Here I'd spent a huge chunk of money buying this dumb kit, I'd spent hours upon hours building it, and I still didn't know if I had what it took to fly one! But by Friday after 7.5 hours of putting my instructor through a boring painful hell, I was able to keep the ship a couple of feet off the ground and in one spotЙor maybe two spots.
   When you reach this point, you're sent away with an endorsement in your logbook for Hover Only. You go home, final rig your own ship, and begin to flight test and hover. The student is encouraged to hover, hover, hover and get good at it before heading back to Arizona for Phase II. The average hover-only pilot clocks somewhere around 25 to 30 hours before going back to Mecca. That may sound like a long time, but it's the safest thing to do. Think about it: You're a student and you're a test pilot. If this is your first dealing with rotorcraft, you don't have much experience in either area. So while you're improving your hovering skills, you're also testing out your new helicopter and breaking it in. But you're doing it from only a few inches off the ground! Can you test fly a fixed-wing at zero airspeed, 12 inches in the air

Phase II
   Once you get the hover thing down, it's back to Arizona for a week of climb-outs, forward flight, approaches, autorotations and emergency procedure training. Sound tough? Nope. If a guy can hover, he can do all the other stuff, and the view is better. (Most pilots claim that hovering is the most difficult skill in chopper flying.) At the end of that week, you're given another endorsement for all of the above. So far you have 15 hours of instruction. You need 5 more for checkride signoff, and this can be obtained during the third week at RotorWay with a company CFI prior to your final checkride. We'll save details on this for later articles.

"Мы продолжим через несколько..."
   Наверное, для первого раза достаточно. I hope that with this series we'll grab some curious readers and maybe pique some untapped interest in experimental aircraft. Even if you have no desire to build a helicopter, I think you'll find it a fascinating progression to see us start with boxes of parts and end up doing practice autorotations and air-to-air photography in the Southern California mountains!

 
Продолжение следует: Часть 2  Часть 3  Часть 4   Часть 5    Часть 6   Часть 7   Часть 8

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Copyright © 2000-2001 Mr.Twistair
Крайние изменения произведены: сентября 10, 2001

Авиационный топ. Нижние два числа - хитов всего
            и хитов в среднем за день. be number one